Appropriateness of Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis Treatment for Animal Exposures

CONTEXT: Rabies postexposure prophylaxis (RPEP) treatments and associated costs have increased in the United States. The extent to which RPEP use is consistent with guidelines is not well understood.

OBJECTIVE: To characterize animal contacts and determine the frequency and factors associated with inappropriate RPEP use.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Prospective case series study of patients presenting with an animal exposure-related complaint from July 1996 to September 1998 at 11 university-affiliated, urban emergency departments (the Emergency ID Net).

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in community-acquired skin infections

The specific aims of this study are to determine the proportion of MRSA among patients presenting from the community with skin and soft tissue infections, and to determine factors associated with MRSA as compared with other etiologies. Eligible patients (18 years of age and over with skin and soft tissue infections and who have material available for culture) presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) were enrolled during the month of August, 2004.

Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Infections among Patients in the Emergency Department

BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasingly recognized in infections among persons in the community without established risk factors for MRSA. METHODS: We enrolled adult patients with acute, purulent skin and soft-tissue infections presenting to 11 university-affiliated emergency departments during the month of August 2004. Cultures were obtained, and clinical information was collected. Available S. aureus isolates were characterized by antimicrobial-susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and detection of toxin genes.

Epidemiology of animal exposures presenting to emergency departments

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of emergency department mammalian animal exposures and to compare adult and pediatric exposure characteristics.

METHODS: This was a prospective case series of patients presenting with animal-exposure related complaints from July 1996 to July 1998. Eleven university-affiliated, geographically diverse, urban emergency departments (EMERGEncy ID NET) participated.

Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus From Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections in US Emergency Department Patients, 2004 and 2008

BACKGROUND:

In the past decade, new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have emerged as a predominant cause of community-associated skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). Little information exists regarding trends in MRSA prevalence and molecular characteristics or regarding antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of S. aureus isolates.

METHODS:

Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus as an Etiology of Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Background. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of skin infections. Recent case series describe severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by MRSA, but the prevalence and risk factors are unknown.

Methods. We prospectively enrolled adults hospitalized with CAP from 12 university-affiliated emergency departments during the winter–spring of 2006 and 2007. Clinical information and culture results were collected, and factors associated with MRSA were assessed.

Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus as an Etiology of Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Background. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of skin infections. Recent case series describe severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by MRSA, but the prevalence and risk factors are unknown.

Methods. We prospectively enrolled adults hospitalized with CAP from 12 university-affiliated emergency departments during the winter–spring of 2006 and 2007. Clinical information and culture results were collected, and factors associated with MRSA were assessed.

Factors associated with decision to hospitalize emergency department patients with skin and soft tissue infection

Introduction

Emergency department (ED) hospitalizations for skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) have increased, while concern for costs has grown and outpatient parenteral antibiotic options have expanded. To identify opportunities to reduce admissions, we explored factors that influence the decision to hospitalize an ED patient with a SSTI.

Methods

Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Strain Type at Various Body Sites among Patients with a Closed Abscess and Uninfected Controls at U.S. Emergency Departments

Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a prevalent cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), but the association between CA-MRSA colonization and infection remains uncertain. We studied the carriage frequency at several body sites and the diversity of S. aureus strains from patients with and without SSTI. Specimens from the nares, throat, rectum, and groin of case subjects with a closed skin abscess (i.e., without drainage) and matched control subjects without a skin infection (n = 147 each) presenting to 10 U.S.

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